Penerapan Asas Hukum Pidana Internasional


Menurut Edward M. Wise ada 3 pokok pengertian tentang Hukum Pidana Internasional yakni mengenai kekuasaan mengadili suatu negara, pembentukan mahkamah internasional untuk menemukan keadilan substansil atas kejahatan internasional dan kriteria hukum publik yang bersifat internasional menjadi suatu hukum internasional.

Sebelum menemukan bagaimana asas hukum pidana internasional, sangatlah penting asas-asas yang berlaku dalam hukum internasional dapat diterima dahulu sebagai norma hukum bagi setiap negara sebagai masyarakat internasional ketika Hukum Pidana Internasional mengandung asas-asas umum hukum internasional, yakni :

  • Asas Kemerdekaan, Kedaulatan dan Kesamaan derajat setiap negara diterima sebagai kenyataan;
  • Asas Non intervensi dalam penyelesaian permasalahan hukum berdimensi asing;
  • Asas Kemampuan untuk hidup berdamping secara damai;
  • Asas penghormatan dan perlindungan Hak Asasi Manusia;

Dengan demikian hal pertama yang menjadi asas hukum pidana internasional adalah asas komplementaris yang terkandung dalam Statuta Roma 1998 mengenai Juridiksi Ration Temporis bahwa Hukum Pidana Internasional berlaku pada yuridiksi hukum pidana nasional (suatau) negara yang melakukan penuntutan terhadap kejahatan yang substansinya ditentukan dalam Pasal 5 statuta roma adalah Kejahatan genosida, Kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan, Kejahatan perang, Kejahatan agresi.

Kemudian Asas Pertanggungjawaban Individu, didalam pasal 98 Statuta Roma telah disepakati Kerja Sama negara untuk mengesampingkan Kekebalan seseorang yang melakukan kejahatan internasional dengan telah adanya persetujuan dari negara setempat untuk memberikan bantuan dengan menyerahkan pelaku untuk diadili sesuai dengan hukum pidana internasional.

Sangat penting artinya Hukum Pidana Internasional memiliki Asas Legalitas yang bersifat sui generis sebab dimensi kejahatan internasional bisa saja belum diatur dalam hukum nasional namun bertentangan dengan kebiasaan umum (internasional), mengesampingkan asas nonretroaktif (tidak berlaku surut) dalam menindak suatu kejahatan internasional diartikan sebagai upaya menemukan keadilan yang substantif demi tercapainya ketertiban dunia.

Akan tetapi, Hukum Pidana Internasional pun menerapkan Asas Pemberlakuan Hukum Pidana misalanya nullum delictum nulla poena siena praevia lege poenalie, asas culpabilitas (tiada pidana tanpa kesalahan), Asas praduga tak bersalah, asas nebis in idem, asas teritorial.

Setiap orang semestinya memahami asas hukum pidana internasional menentukan pertanggungjawaban individual, sehingga kegiatan kriminal yang diadakannya mungkin saja lolos dari penerapan Hukum Pidana Nasional atau tempat dimana ia bersembunyi (asas par in parem non habet imperium) , sepanjang telah diadakan penuntutan kepada dirinya dan perbuatan yang diadakan termasuk kejahatan terhadap perdamaian, kejahatan perang, kejahatan kemanusiaan maka melalui kerjasma interpol dan diplommasi dapat diupayakan penyerahan tersangka untuk mempertanggungjawabkan perbuatan nya melalui mahkamah internasional.

John Ganesha Siahaan

Kelahiran Belinyu tertarik pada isue demokrasi, pembaharuan hukum dan pengawasan kebijakan publik. Aktif sebagai pekerja bantuan hukum dan Penggiat Ekonomi Kreatif pada Pengembangan Industti 4.O

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